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<article class="post-37840 post type-post status-publish format-standard has-post-thumbnail hentry category-culture category-histoire" id="post-37840">
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<a href="https://www.thailande-fr.com/categorie/culture" rel="category tag">Culture</a> <a href="https://www.thailande-fr.com/categorie/culture/histoire" rel="category tag">Histoire</a> </div>
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<h1 class="entry-title">L&#8217;influence historique de l&#8217;hindouisme en Thaïlande</h1>
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<p>Les liens de la Thaïlande actuelle avec l&#8217;hindouisme sont millénaires suite à l&#8217;indianisation de l&#8217;Asie du Sud-est et la domination successive de ces contrées par les civilisations dvâravatî, khmer puis thaï.</p>
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Par <a href="https://www.thailande-fr.com/author/loriscz">Loris Curtenaz</a> </span>
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<a href="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/37840-linfluence-historique-de-lhindouisme-thailande">18/12/2015</a>
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</div><p>Les liens du territoire de la Thaïlande actuelle avec l&#8217;hindouisme sont millénaires suite à l&#8217;indianisation de l&#8217;Asie du Sud-est et la domination successive de ces contrées par les civilisations d<span class="st">vâravatî</span>, khmer puis thaï.<span id="more-37840"></span></p>
<p>On retrouve aujourd&#8217;hui cet héritage dans les ruines de somptueux temples dédiés à des dieux hindous tel <em>Phanom Rung</em> à Buriram et <em>Sdok Kok Thom</em> à Aranyaprathet, tous deux construits en l&#8217;honneur de <em>Shiva</em>, ou encore le <em>Prang Khaek</em> en plein centre de Lopburi.</p>
<p>Plus généralement, en se mélangeant avec l&#8217;animisme local et le bouddhisme, beaucoup du fond culturel, religieux et mythologique de la Thaïlande renvoient à l&#8217;Inde, ses légendes et ses nombreuses divinités.</p>
<p>L’emblème national de la Thaïlande (Phra Khrut Pha), que l&#8217;on retrouve sur tous les documents officiels (passeports, billets de banque, quasiment tous les documents publiés par le gouvernement), représente l&#8217;homme-oiseau Garuda qui est aussi la monture du dieu Vishnou dans la mythologie hindouiste.</p>
<h2>Le brahmanisme et la monarchie thaïlandaise</h2>
<p>Le système monarchique en Thaïlande, inspiré de certains rois du Royaume d&#8217;Angkor, suit toujours le précepte de <em>Devaraja</em>, c’est-à-dire du dieu-roi.</p><div data-ad-id="84326" style="text-align:center; margin-top:32px; margin-bottom:30px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw-ga afw_ad afwadid-84326">
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<figure id="attachment_37950" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-37950" style="width: 305px" class="wp-caption alignright"><a href="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?ssl=1" rel="attachment wp-att-37950"><img data-attachment-id="37950" data-permalink="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/37840-linfluence-historique-de-lhindouisme-thailande/attachment/garuda_emblem_of_thailand" data-orig-file="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?fit=400%2C425&amp;ssl=1" data-orig-size="400,425" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{&quot;aperture&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;credit&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;camera&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;caption&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;created_timestamp&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;copyright&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;focal_length&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;iso&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;shutter_speed&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;orientation&quot;:&quot;0&quot;}" data-image-title="Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand" data-image-description data-medium-file="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?fit=282%2C300&amp;ssl=1" data-large-file="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?fit=400%2C425&amp;ssl=1" class="wp-image-37950 jetpack-lazy-image" src="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?resize=305%2C324&#038;ssl=1" alt="le Garuda, est issu de la mythologie hindouiste" width="305" height="324" data-recalc-dims="1" data-lazy-srcset="//i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?w=400&amp;ssl=1 400w, //i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?resize=282%2C300&amp;ssl=1 282w" data-lazy-sizes="(max-width: 305px) 100vw, 305px" data-lazy-src="//i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?resize=305%2C324&amp;is-pending-load=1#038;ssl=1" srcset="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAAAAAP///yH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAIBRAA7"><noscript><img data-attachment-id="37950" data-permalink="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/37840-linfluence-historique-de-lhindouisme-thailande/attachment/garuda_emblem_of_thailand" data-orig-file="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?fit=400%2C425&amp;ssl=1" data-orig-size="400,425" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{&quot;aperture&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;credit&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;camera&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;caption&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;created_timestamp&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;copyright&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;focal_length&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;iso&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;shutter_speed&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;orientation&quot;:&quot;0&quot;}" data-image-title="Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?fit=282%2C300&amp;ssl=1" data-large-file="https://i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?fit=400%2C425&amp;ssl=1" class="wp-image-37950" src="//i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?resize=305%2C324&#038;ssl=1" alt="le Garuda, est issu de la mythologie hindouiste" width="305" height="324" srcset="//i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?w=400&amp;ssl=1 400w, //i0.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Garuda_Emblem_of_Thailand.png?resize=282%2C300&amp;ssl=1 282w" sizes="(max-width: 305px) 100vw, 305px" data-recalc-dims="1" /></noscript></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-37950" class="wp-caption-text">L&#8217;emblème national de la Thaïlande, le Garuda, est issu de la mythologie hindouiste</figcaption></figure>
<p>Selon ce concept, se basant autant sur la mythologie brahmanique que bouddhique, le roi est roi parce qu&#8217;il possède le sang royal de sa lignée, qu&#8217;il est considéré comme une incarnation du dieu <em>Vishnou</em>, – rapports à l&#8217;hindouisme –, et qu&#8217;il est un <em>Bodhisattva</em> accomplissant des mérites – rapport au bouddhisme.</p>
<p>Celui qui couronne le roi et qui conduit les principaux rituels au palais royal n&#8217;est ainsi pas un moine bouddhiste mais un brahmane, c’est-à-dire un religieux hindou appartenant à la caste des prêtres.</p><div data-ad-id="107941" style="text-align:center; margin-top:12px; margin-bottom:14px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw_ad_image afw_ad afwadid-107941">
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<p>Portant le nom honorifique de Phara Rajaguru Vamadevamuni, il est l&#8217;héritier d&#8217;une longue lignée de brahmane qui a servi les précédents rois de la dynastie des <em>Chakri</em>.</p>
<p>Ce prêtre est basé dans un temple discret du nom de <em>Dhevasathan</em> sur l&#8217;île de Rattanakosin, à côté du Wat Suthat. Construit par Rama I, ce sanctuaire est un lieu spirituel et mythologique extrêmement important pour la monarchie.</p>
<p>Ce complexe ouvert au public abrite trois représentations des principaux dieux hindous dans un style thaï unique: <em>Shiva, Ganesh</em> et <em>Vishnou</em>. Du fait de leur caractère historique et symbolique pour le Royaume, il est strictement interdit de les photographier.</p><div data-ad-id="84326" style="text-align:center; margin-top:32px; margin-bottom:30px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw-ga afw_ad afwadid-84326">
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<h2>Le Ramayana indien à la base de l&#8217;épopée nationale</h2>
<p>Plusieurs aspects historiques du Royaume renvoient inexorablement à des branches de l&#8217;hindouisme.</p>
<p>L&#8217;ancienne capitale Ayutthaya fut par exemple nommée d&#8217;après <em>Ayodhya</em>, ville sainte de l&#8217;hindouisme située dans l&#8217;Etat de l&#8217;Uttar Pradesh en Inde.</p>
<p><em>Ayodhya</em> fut la capitale d&#8217;un royaume gouverné par un certain Rama, l&#8217;une des incarnations (avatar) du dieu <em>Vishnou</em>. Rama, <em>Praram</em> en thaï (พระราม), est également le nom par lequel on distingue<a href="https://www.thailande-fr.com/actu/34364-le-6-avril-jour-de-la-dynastie-des-rois-chakri-en-thailand" target="_blank"> les neufs rois de la dynastie des <em>Chakri</em> en Thaïlande</a>, eux-mêmes des incarnations de <em>Vishnou</em>.</p>
<p>L&#8217;emblème de la monarchie thaïlandaise est en fait la superposition de deux armes divines hindouiste: le Chakra, sorte de disque dentelé destiné à être lancé contre l&#8217;ennemi, utilisé par Vishnou, et le Trisula, un trident qui est l&#8217;arme de Shiva.</p><div data-ad-id="107941" style="text-align:center; margin-top:12px; margin-bottom:14px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw_ad_image afw_ad afwadid-107941">
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<figure id="attachment_24058" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-24058" style="width: 371px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><a href="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?ssl=1" rel="attachment wp-att-24058"><img data-attachment-id="24058" data-permalink="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/histoire/24051-aujourdhui-cest-chakri/attachment/421px-emblem_of_the_house_of_chakri-svg" data-orig-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?fit=421%2C599&amp;ssl=1" data-orig-size="421,599" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{&quot;aperture&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;credit&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;camera&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;caption&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;created_timestamp&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;copyright&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;focal_length&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;iso&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;shutter_speed&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;orientation&quot;:&quot;0&quot;}" data-image-title="421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg" data-image-description data-medium-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?fit=211%2C300&amp;ssl=1" data-large-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?fit=421%2C599&amp;ssl=1" class="wp-image-24058  jetpack-lazy-image" src="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?resize=371%2C528&#038;ssl=1" alt="L&#039;emblème de la monarchie thaïlandaise est en fait la superposition de deux armes divines hindouiste" width="371" height="528" data-recalc-dims="1" data-lazy-srcset="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?w=421&amp;ssl=1 421w, //i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?resize=211%2C300&amp;ssl=1 211w" data-lazy-sizes="(max-width: 371px) 100vw, 371px" data-lazy-src="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?resize=371%2C528&amp;is-pending-load=1#038;ssl=1" srcset="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAAAAAP///yH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAIBRAA7"><noscript><img data-attachment-id="24058" data-permalink="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/histoire/24051-aujourdhui-cest-chakri/attachment/421px-emblem_of_the_house_of_chakri-svg" data-orig-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?fit=421%2C599&amp;ssl=1" data-orig-size="421,599" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{&quot;aperture&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;credit&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;camera&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;caption&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;created_timestamp&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;copyright&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;focal_length&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;iso&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;shutter_speed&quot;:&quot;0&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;orientation&quot;:&quot;0&quot;}" data-image-title="421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?fit=211%2C300&amp;ssl=1" data-large-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?fit=421%2C599&amp;ssl=1" class="wp-image-24058" src="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?resize=371%2C528&#038;ssl=1" alt="L'emblème de la monarchie thaïlandaise est en fait la superposition de deux armes divines hindouiste" width="371" height="528" srcset="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?w=421&amp;ssl=1 421w, //i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/421px-Emblem_of_the_House_of_Chakri.svg_.png?resize=211%2C300&amp;ssl=1 211w" sizes="(max-width: 371px) 100vw, 371px" data-recalc-dims="1" /></noscript></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-24058" class="wp-caption-text">L&#8217;emblème de la monarchie thaïlandaise est en fait la superposition de deux armes divines hindouiste</figcaption></figure>
<p>Écrite en sanskrit, la vie du Rama indien a été racontée dans l&#8217;épopée <em>Ramayana</em>, dont il existe plusieurs versions en Asie du Sud-est, par exemple le <em>Reamker</em> au Cambodge ou le <em>Kakawin Ramayana</em> sur l&#8217;île de Java.</p><div data-ad-id="84326" style="text-align:center; margin-top:32px; margin-bottom:30px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw-ga afw_ad afwadid-84326">
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<p>En Thaïlande, la version locale du <em>Ramayana</em>, écrite sous l&#8217;ère de Rama I, se nomme <em>Ramakien</em>, littéralement la Gloire de Rama.</p>
<p>L&#8217;histoire, les principaux personnages et les divinités hindoues restent les mêmes mais l&#8217;épopée fut transférée dans le contexte historique et culturel thaï. Au <em>Wat Phra Keaw</em>, le temple royal, on peut observer des fresques dépeignant l&#8217;histoire issue du <em>Ramakien</em>.</p>
<h2>La balançoire géante, rituel brahmanique</h2>
<p>Autre exemple étonnant des croyances issues du système religieux hindou à Bangkok, la balançoire géante (Giant Swing – <em>Sao Ching Cha</em>), en face du temple de <em>Wat Suthat</em>, n&#8217;est pas une structure bouddhique, encore moins de l&#8217;art contemporain ou un <em>Torii</em> japonais, mais une représentation d&#8217;un mythe brahmanique.</p>
<p>Construite deux ans après la création du Royaume de Rattanakosin en 1784, la structure en teck fut plusieurs fois remplacée. Celle actuellement en place fut inaugurée fin 2006 et mesure 21 mètres de haut.</p>
<p>Autrefois utilisée comme véritable balançoire géante pour célébrer l&#8217;arrivée symbolique de <em>Shiva</em> et <em>Vishnou</em> sur terre une fois par an, la structure devrait à nouveau être le théâtre de ces impressionnants rituels brahmanique s&#8217;il l&#8217;on en croit les propos du gouverneur de Bangkok.</p><div data-ad-id="84326" style="text-align:center; margin-top:32px; margin-bottom:30px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw-ga afw_ad afwadid-84326">
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<h2>Des divinités hindoues omniprésentes</h2>
<p>Au-delà des rites, de l&#8217;histoire et des croyances brahmaniques qui peuplent l&#8217;imaginaire national, les divinités hindoues bénéficient d&#8217;une forte popularité dans la population.</p><div data-ad-id="107941" style="text-align:center; margin-top:12px; margin-bottom:14px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw_ad_image afw_ad afwadid-107941">
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<p>Se mélangeant allégrement au bouddhisme, ces croyances coexistent sans peine pour former un système religieux cohérent, basé sur les mérites, la dévotion et la foi.</p>
<figure id="attachment_10708" aria-describedby="caption-attachment-10708" style="width: 640px" class="wp-caption alignleft"><a href="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?ssl=1" rel="attachment wp-att-10708"><img data-attachment-id="10708" data-permalink="https://www.thailande-fr.com/tourisme/5968-bangkok-elue-meilleure-ville-au-monde/attachment/erawan" data-orig-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?fit=640%2C480&amp;ssl=1" data-orig-size="640,480" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{&quot;aperture&quot;:&quot;2.8&quot;,&quot;credit&quot;:&quot;thailande-fr.com&quot;,&quot;camera&quot;:&quot;DSC-W1&quot;,&quot;caption&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;created_timestamp&quot;:&quot;1228020423&quot;,&quot;copyright&quot;:&quot;thailande-fr.com&quot;,&quot;focal_length&quot;:&quot;7.9&quot;,&quot;iso&quot;:&quot;100&quot;,&quot;shutter_speed&quot;:&quot;0.00625&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;orientation&quot;:&quot;1&quot;}" data-image-title="erawan" data-image-description data-medium-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?fit=300%2C225&amp;ssl=1" data-large-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?fit=580%2C435&amp;ssl=1" class="wp-image-10708 size-full jetpack-lazy-image" src="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?resize=580%2C435&#038;ssl=1" alt="erawan shrine Bangkok" width="580" height="435" data-recalc-dims="1" data-lazy-srcset="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?w=640&amp;ssl=1 640w, //i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?resize=300%2C225&amp;ssl=1 300w, //i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?resize=600%2C450&amp;ssl=1 600w" data-lazy-sizes="(max-width: 580px) 100vw, 580px" data-lazy-src="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?resize=580%2C435&amp;is-pending-load=1#038;ssl=1" srcset="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAAAAAP///yH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAIBRAA7"><noscript><img data-attachment-id="10708" data-permalink="https://www.thailande-fr.com/tourisme/5968-bangkok-elue-meilleure-ville-au-monde/attachment/erawan" data-orig-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?fit=640%2C480&amp;ssl=1" data-orig-size="640,480" data-comments-opened="1" data-image-meta="{&quot;aperture&quot;:&quot;2.8&quot;,&quot;credit&quot;:&quot;thailande-fr.com&quot;,&quot;camera&quot;:&quot;DSC-W1&quot;,&quot;caption&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;created_timestamp&quot;:&quot;1228020423&quot;,&quot;copyright&quot;:&quot;thailande-fr.com&quot;,&quot;focal_length&quot;:&quot;7.9&quot;,&quot;iso&quot;:&quot;100&quot;,&quot;shutter_speed&quot;:&quot;0.00625&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;&quot;,&quot;orientation&quot;:&quot;1&quot;}" data-image-title="erawan" data-image-description="" data-medium-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?fit=300%2C225&amp;ssl=1" data-large-file="https://i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?fit=580%2C435&amp;ssl=1" class="wp-image-10708 size-full" src="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?resize=580%2C435&#038;ssl=1" alt="erawan shrine Bangkok" width="580" height="435" srcset="//i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?w=640&amp;ssl=1 640w, //i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?resize=300%2C225&amp;ssl=1 300w, //i1.wp.com/www.thailande-fr.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/erawan.jpg?resize=600%2C450&amp;ssl=1 600w" sizes="(max-width: 580px) 100vw, 580px" data-recalc-dims="1" /></noscript></a><figcaption id="caption-attachment-10708" class="wp-caption-text">Le sanctuaire d&#8217;Erawan à Bangkok : les Thaïlandais et les touristes y vénèrent Phra Phrom, la représentation locale de Brahma.</figcaption></figure>
<p>Ainsi, rien qu&#8217;à Bangkok, on compte des centaines de petits sanctuaires représentant des divinités hindoues où les Thaïlandais viennent se recueillir et prier pour leur bonne fortune.</p>
<p>Le plus connu de tous est le sanctuaire d&#8217;<em>Erawan</em>, situé en plein quartier d&#8217;affaires. Les Thaïlandais et les touristes y vénèrent <em>Phra Phrom</em>, la représentation locale de <em>Brahma</em>.</p>
<p>Suite au terrible attentat d’août 2015, il n&#8217;a pas fallu une semaine pour que <em>Erawan Shrine</em> retrouve sa splendeur et ses fidèles.</p><div data-ad-id="84326" style="text-align:center; margin-top:32px; margin-bottom:30px; margin-left:px; margin-right:px;float:none;" class="afw afw-ga afw_ad afwadid-84326">
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<p>D&#8217;autres sanctuaires ne désemplissent jamais tel celui à la sortie de la station de métro <em>Huay Kwang</em>, en l&#8217;honneur de <em>Ganesh</em>, le dieu éléphant du panthéon hindou. Étant la divinité de l&#8217;éducation et de la connaissance, ce sanctuaire est prisé par les étudiants.</p>
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				<button class="tcm-show-login tcm-save-btn-center" id="tcm-login-up" data-parent="<#= id #>" data-level="<#= level #>" type="submit">
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('login_on_website') #>
				</button>
				<# } #>
				<# } else {#>
				<div class="tcm-guest">
					<# if ( !ThriveComments.settings.comment_registration && !ThriveComments.current_user.ID ) {#>
					<p><#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('guest_comment') #></p>
					<div class="tcm-error-message"></div>
					<input tabindex="1" id="tcm-guest-name" class="form-input" type="text" name="name" placeholder="<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('name') #>"/>
					<div class="tcm-error-message"></div>
					<input tabindex="1" id="tcm-guest-email" class="form-input" type="text" name="email" placeholder="<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('email') #>"/>
					<# if(ThriveComments.settings.tcm_show_url == 1){#>
					<div class="tcm-error-message"></div>
					<input tabindex="1" id="tcm-author-url" class="form-input" type="text" name="url" placeholder="<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('website') #>"/>
					<# } #>
					<# } #>


					<# if ( ! ThriveComments.close_comments && ThriveComments.email_services.length !== 0 ) { #>
					<label class="tcm_receive_notif_container">
						<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('tcm_receive_notifications') #>
						<input id="tcm_receive_notifications" class="form-input" type="checkbox" name="tcm_receive_notifications"/>
						<span class="checkmark"></span>
					</label>
					<# } #>

					<# if ( ThriveComments.settings.remember_me === '1' ) { #>
					<label class="tcm_remember_me">
						<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('remember_me') #>
						<input id="tcm_remember_me" class="form-input" type="checkbox" name="tcm_remember_me"/>
						<span class="checkmark"></span>
					</label>
					<# } #>

					<# if ( ThriveComments.settings.storing_consent === '1' && !ThriveComments.current_user.ID ) { #>
					<label class="tcm_remember_me tcm_last_label">
						<span class="tcm-consent-text"><#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('storing_consent') #></span>
						<div class="tcm-error-message"></div>
						<input id="tcm_storing_consent" class="form-input" type="checkbox" name="tcm_storing_consent"/>
						<span class="checkmark"></span>
					</label>
					<# } #>

					<button tabindex="1" class="tcm-save-btn tcm-truncate tcm-transparent tcm-border-color-ac-h" id="tcm-submit-comment" data-parent="<#= id #>" data-level="<#= level #>" type="submit">
						<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('submit_comment') #>
					</button>
				</div>

				<# if ( ( ! current_user_id && ThriveComments.settings.login_activation ) || ( ThriveComments.settings.tcm_enable_social_signin === '1' &&
				( ( ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.google === 1 && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.google_api === 1 ) ||
				( ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.facebook === 1 && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.facebook_api === 1 ) ) ) ) { #>
				<div class="tcm-separator">
					<span>or</span>
				</div>
				<# } #>
				<div class="tcm-user-details">
					<# if ( ! current_user_id && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_enable_social_signin === '1' && ( ThriveComments.social_user === undefined &&
					( ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.google === 1 && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.google_api === 1 ) ||
					( ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.facebook === 1 && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.facebook_api === 1 ) ) ) { #>
					<div class="tcm-social-accounts">
						<p>
							<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('social_account') #>
						</p>
						<# if(ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.facebook === 1 && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.facebook_api === 1){#>
						<a href="javascript:void(0)" id="tcm-fb-logo" class="tcm-social-share-logo">
						                                            <span class="tcm-share-info">
							                                            <#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('signin_facebook') #>
						                                            </span>
						</a>
						<# } #>
						<# if(ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.google === 1 && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_api_status.google_api === 1){#>
						<a href="javascript:void(0)" id="tcm-gp-logo" class="tcm-social-share-logo">
						                                            <span class="tcm-share-info">
							                                            <#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('signin_google') #>
						                                            </span>
						</a>
						<# } #>
					</div>
					<# } #>
					<# if ( ! current_user_id && ThriveComments.settings.login_activation ) { #>

					<button class="tcm-show-login tcm-truncate" id="tcm-login-down" data-parent="<#= id #>" data-level="<#= level #>" type="submit"
					<# if(ThriveComments.settings.tcm_enable_social_signin == 1){#>style="margin-top: 20px;"<#}#>>
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('login_on_website') #>
					</button>
					<# } #>
				</div>
				<# }#>
			</div>
		</div>
	</div>
	<div class="clear"></div>
</div>

<# } #>
</div>
</script><script type="text/template" id="comments-deleted"><div class="tcm-deleted-comment clear-this">
	<div class="deleted-header">
		<div class="moderation-img no-image" data-social-avatar="<#= comment.get('social_avatar') #>" data-email="<#= comment.get('comment_author_email') #>" data-src="<#= comment.get('photo_src') #>" style="background-image: url(<#= comment.get('author_avatar_urls') #>);"></div>
		<div class="deleted-header-text">
			<strong>
				<#= comment.get('author_name') #>
			</strong>
			<span>
				<#= comment.get('formatted_date') #>
			</span>
		</div>
	</div>
	<div class="deleted-text">
		<p class="deleted-info-text tcm-color-ac">
			<# if ( comment.get('status') === 'spam' ) { #>
			<span>This comment was marked as spam</span>
			<# } else { #>
			<span>This comment was marked as trash</span>
			<# } #>
			<a href="#" data-key="z" class="undo-action">Undo</a>
		</p>

		<p>
			<#= comment.get('comment_content') #>
		</p>
	</div>
</div>
</script><script type="text/template" id="comments-item"><div class="deleted-state"></div>
<div class="tcm-comment-content <# if ( parseInt( comment.get('tcm_featured') ) === 1 ) { #> tcm-featured <# } #><# if ( comment.get('comment_approved') == 0 )  { #> tcm-comment-awaiting-moderation <# } #> level-<#= comment.get('level') #>"
	 data-comment-id="<#= comment.get('comment_ID') #>">
	<div id="tcm-moderate-front" class="tcm-moderate-front"></div>

	<#  if ( comment.isPostAuthor() ) { #>
	<svg class="author-icon-svg"><use xlink:href="#tcm-author-icon"></use></svg>	<# } #>
	<div class="tcm-comment-header">
		<# if ( gravatarActive ) { #>
		<div class="tcm-comment-author-img no-image" title="Comment Author Image" data-social-avatar="<#= comment.get('social_avatar') #>" data-email-hash="<#= comment.get('email_hash') #>" data-comment-id="<#= comment.get('comment_ID') #>" data-src="<#= comment.get('photo_src') #>"
			 style="background-image: url(<#= comment.get('photo_src') #>)"></div>
		<# } #>
		<div class="tcm-author-content">
			<div class="tcm-user-info">
				<div class="tcm-comment-author-name">
					<strong>
						<#= comment.get('display_name') #>
					</strong>
					<# if ( comment.get('show_badge') ) { #>
					<# var badges_object = comment.get('user_achieved_badges');#>
					<# if(badges_object != undefined && badges_object.length === undefined && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_badges_option == '1'){#>
					<div class="tcm-author-badges">
						<# _.each(badges_object,function(badge,key){
								if(badge.image_url.indexOf('all_badges.svg') !== -1){#>
														<span class="tcm-badge svg-badge">
															<span class="text"><#= badge.name #></span>
															<svg><use xlink:href="<#= badge.image_url #>"/></svg>
														</span>
														<#}else{#>
														<span class="tcm-badge" style="background-image: url('<#= badge.image_url #>')">
															<span class="text"><#= badge.name #></span>
														</span>
														<#}#>
														<# });#>
					</div>
					<# } #>
					<# } #>
				</div>

				<# if ( ThriveComments.settings['comment_date'] != 0) { #>
				<div class="tcm-date-container">
											<span>
												<#= comment.get('formatted_date') #>
											</span>
				</div>
				<# } #>
			</div>
		</div>
	</div>

	
	<div class="tcm-comment-text">
		<p class="tcm-moderation tcm-color-ac">This comment is awaiting moderation</p>
		<div class="tcm-comment-text-content">
			<#= comment.get('comment_content') #>
		</div>
	</div>

	<div class="clearfix" style="position: relative;">
		<div class="tcm-left">
			<#  var can_vote = true;
					if(ThriveComments.current_user.display_name == undefined && ThriveComments.settings.tcm_voting_only_register == 1){
					can_vote = false;
					}
					if(ThriveComments.settings.tcm_vote_type != 'no_vote' && (comment.get('comment_approved') == 1) && can_vote){#>
			<div class="tcm-voting-container">
                <span>
                    <#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('vote') #>
                </span>
				<button class="tcm-voting-input tcm-upvote <# if(last_vote == 'upvote'){#> active <# } #>" data-type="upvote">
					<div class="tcm-thumb_up">
						<svg class=""><use xlink:href="#tcm-icon-thumb_up"></use></svg>					</div>
					<span class="tcm-votes-count"><#= comment.get('upvote') #></span>
				</button>
				<# if(ThriveComments.settings.tcm_vote_type != 'up_only'){#>
				<button class="tcm-voting-input tcm-downvote <# if(last_vote == 'downvote'){#> active <# } #>" data-type="downvote">
					<div class="tcm-thumb_down">
						<svg class=""><use xlink:href="#tcm-icon-thumb_down"></use></svg>					</div>
					<span class="tcm-votes-count"><#= comment.get('downvote') #> </span>
				</button>
				<# } #>
			</div>
			<# } #>
			<# if ( share_individual_comments && (comment.get('comment_approved') == 1 ) ) { #>
			<div class="tcm-dropdown tcm-share-dropdown">
                    <span class="tcm-toggle-button">
                        <#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('share') #>

						<svg class="bulk-action-arrow-svg"><use xlink:href="#tcm-bulk-action-arrow"></use></svg>
                    </span>
				<div class="tcm-dropdown-content">
					<div class="tcm-dropdown-element">
						<a href="http://www.facebook.com/share.php" class="tcm-fb-icon tcm-share-facebook"
						   data-url="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/37840-linfluence-historique-de-lhindouisme-thailande#comments/<#= comment.get('comment_ID') #>">
							Facebook						</a>
					</div>
					<div class="tcm-dropdown-element">
						<a href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet" class="tcm-tw-icon tcm-share-twitter"
						   data-url="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/37840-linfluence-historique-de-lhindouisme-thailande#comments/<#= comment.get('comment_ID') #>">
							Twitter						</a>
					</div>
					<div class="tcm-dropdown-element tcm-copy-input-content">
						<a id="tcm-click-to-copy"
						   class="tcm-left  tcm-copy-url tcm-cu-icon"
						   href="javascript:void(0)" data-clipboard-text="https://www.thailande-fr.com/culture/37840-linfluence-historique-de-lhindouisme-thailande#comments/<#= comment.get('comment_ID') #>">
							<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('copy_url') #>
						</a>
					</div>
				</div>
			</div>
			<# } #>
		</div>
		<# if ( ! close_comments ) { #>
			<# if ( comment.get('comment_approved') == 1 || ( ThriveComments.current_user.is_moderator && comment.get('comment_approved') !== 1 ) ) { #>
			<div class="tcm-reply-container">
				<button class='tcm-reply-btn tcm-right tcm-truncate tcm-border-color-ac' data-id="<#= comment.get('comment_ID') #>"
						data-level="<#= comment.get('level') #>" type="submit"><span class="reply-icon-container">
						<svg class="tcm-svg-fill-ac"><use xlink:href="#tcm-reply"></use></svg>					</span>
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('reply_to_user', comment.get('comment_author')) #>
				</button>
				<div class="clear"></div>
				<div class="tcm-create-comment-fields"></div>
			</div>
			<# } #>
		<# } #>
	</div>

	<div class="clear"></div>

</div>
</script><script type="text/template" id="comments-lazy-loading"><button class="tcm-loader">
	<div style="display: inline-block" class="tcm-dot-loader done">
		<span class="inner1"></span>
		<span class="inner2"></span>
		<span class="inner3"></span>
	</div>
	<p>
		<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('load_comments') #>
	</p>
</button>
<# if ( comments_rendered > 2 && ! ThriveComments.close_comments ) { #>
<div class="add-comment tcm-background-color-ac">
	<p>
			<span class="add-comment-icon">
				<svg class="add-comment-svg"><use xlink:href="#tcm-add-comment"></use></svg>			</span>
		<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('add_comment') #></#></p>
</div>
<# } #>
<# if ( showPoweredBy ) { #>
<div class="tcm-powered-by">
    	<a href="https://thrivethemes.com/comments/" title="Powered by Thrive Comments" target="_blank">
			<span class="tcm-footer-logo">
				<svg class="logo-footer-svg"><use xlink:href="#tcm-logo-footer"></use></svg>			</span>

		<span>
			Powered by 		</span>
		<span>
			Thrive Comments		</span>
	</a>
</div>
<# } #>

<# if ( ! ThriveComments.close_comments && ThriveComments.email_services.length !== 0 ) { #>
	<div class="tcm-align-right">

		<a href="javascript:void(0)" class="tcm-link-unsubscribe" title="<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('unsubscribe') #>"
		<# if ( - 1 === ThriveComments.util.get_cookie( 'subscribed_posts' ).indexOf( ThriveComments.post.ID ) || ( typeof ThriveComments.current_user.ID === 'undefined' ) ) { #> hidden <# } #> >
		<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('unsubscribe') #></a>

		<a href="javascript:void(0)" class="tcm-link-subscribe" title="<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('subscribe') #>"
		<# if ( - 1 !== ThriveComments.util.get_cookie( 'subscribed_posts' ).indexOf( ThriveComments.post.ID ) ) { #> hidden <# } #> >
		<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('subscribe') #></a>

		<div id="tcm-subscribe-form" class="tcm-subscribe-form" hidden>
			<div class="tcm-error-message"></div>
			<input class="form-input tcm-subscriber-email" type="text" name="Email" placeholder="<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('email') #>"/>
			<button class="submit-subscribe-post"><#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('subscribe') #></a></button>
		</div>

		<# if ( typeof ThriveComments.current_user.ID === 'undefined' ) { #>
			<div id="tcm-unsubscribe-form" class="tcm-subscribe-form"
			<# if ( - 1 === ThriveComments.util.get_cookie( 'subscribed_posts' ).indexOf( ThriveComments.post.ID )  ) { #> hidden <# } #> >
				<div class="tcm-error-message"></div>
				<input class="form-input tcm-unsubscriber-email" type="text" name="Email" placeholder="<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('email') #>"/>
				<button class="submit-unsubscribe-post"><#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('unsubscribe') #></a></button>
			</div>
		<# } #>
        <p class="tcm-already-subscribed" hidden> Already subscribed! </p>

    </div>
<# } #>
<div class="clear"></div>
</script><script type="text/template" id="comments-list"><div id="tcm-comments-filter" class="tcm-comments-filter">
	<div class="tcm-lazy-loader"></div>
</div></script><script type="text/template" id="comments-moderation"><div class="tcm-moderate-dots tcm-background-color-ac-h">
	<span class="moderate-dot"></span>
	<span class="moderate-dot"></span>
	<span class="moderate-dot"></span>
</div>

<div class="tcm-dropdown-moderate">
	<# _.each( actions, function( action, key ){ #>
	<div class="tcm-dropdown-moderate-element" data-fn="<#= action.fn #>" data-value="<#= action.value #>"><#= action.text #></div>
	<# }) #>
</div></script><script type="text/template" id="comments-sort"><div class="tcm-comments-filters">
	<div class="left">
		<div class="tcm-comments-number">
			<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label( 'number_of_comments', 'comment_count' ) #>
		</div>
	</div>
	<div class="right">
		<label for="sort-by">
			<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('show_comments_first','','before') #>
		</label>
		<div name="sort-by" id="tcm-sort-by" class="tcm-dropdown tcm-filter-dropdown tcm-really-random">
            <span class="tcm-toggle-button current-sorting">
                <# if ( ThriveComments.settings.comment_order === 'desc') { #>
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label( 'newest') #>
					<# } else if( ThriveComments.settings.comment_order === 'asc') { #>
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label( 'oldest') #>
					<# } else {#>
				<# if( ThriveComments.settings.tcm_vote_type != 'no_vote' ) {#>
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label( 'top_rated') #>
					<# } #>
				<# } #>
			</span>

			<span class="dropdown-arrow-comments">
						<svg class="sort-by-dropdown-svg"><use xlink:href="#tcm-sort-by-dropdown"></use></svg>			</span>

			<div class="tcm-dropdown-content">

				<div data-value="desc" class="tcm-dropdown-element tcm-sort-by">
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label( 'newest') #>
				</div>
				<div data-value="asc" class="tcm-dropdown-element tcm-sort-by">
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label( 'oldest') #>
				</div>
				<# if(ThriveComments.settings.tcm_vote_type != 'no_vote'){#>
				<div data-value="top-rated" class="tcm-dropdown-element tcm-sort-by">
					<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label( 'top_rated') #>
				</div>

				<# } #>

			</div>
		</div>
		<label for="sort-by">
			<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('show_comments_first','','after') #>
		</label>
	</div>
</div>
<div class="clear"></div>
<# if ( ThriveComments.close_comments ) { #>
<div class="tcm-closed-comments" style="text-align: center">
	<p>
		<#= ThriveComments.util.render_label('close_comments') #>
	</p>
</div>
<# } #></script> <div id="wp-auth-check-wrap" class="hidden">
<div id="wp-auth-check-bg"></div>
<div id="wp-auth-check">
<button type="button" class="wp-auth-check-close button-link"><span class="screen-reader-text">Fermez la boite de dialogue</span></button>
<div id="wp-auth-check-form" class="loading" data-src="https://www.thailande-fr.com/wp-login.php?interim-login=1&#038;wp_lang=fr_FR"></div>
<div class="wp-auth-fallback">
<p><b class="wp-auth-fallback-expired" tabindex="0">La session a expiré</b></p>
<p><a href="https://www.thailande-fr.com/wp-login.php" target="_blank">Veuillez vous reconnecter.</a>
La page de connexion s’ouvrira dans une nouvelle fenêtre. Après connexion, vous pourrez la fermer et revenir à cette page.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div style="display: none;">
<svg style="position: absolute; width: 0; height: 0; overflow: hidden;" version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" x="0px" y="0px" xml:space="preserve">
<defs>
<symbol id="tcm-reply" viewbox="0 0 100 100">
<g>
<path d="M69.9,38.1L69.9,38.1c-1.5-3.7-4.7-6.4-7.4-9.2c-2.8-2.8-6.3-4.7-9.9-6.3c-3.7-1.6-7.7-2.4-11.7-2.4h-11					l4.7-4.8c3.4-3.4,3.4-9,0-12.4c-3.4-3.4-8.9-3.4-12.2,0L2.8,22.7c-3.4,3.4-3.4,9,0,12.4l19.4,19.7c1.7,1.7,3.9,2.6,6.1,2.6					c2.2,0,4.4-0.9,6.1-2.6c3.4-3.4,3.4-9,0-12.4l-4.6-4.6h10.9c3.4,0,6.6,1.4,9.1,3.8l4.8,4.8c1.2,2,3,3.4,5.1,4.1					c2.1,0.6,4.5,0.4,6.6-0.7C70.5,47.5,72,42.3,69.9,38.1z" />
<ellipse cx="81.1" cy="60.8" rx="8.5" ry="8.6" />
</g>
</symbol>
<symbol id="tcm-icon-thumb_down" viewbox="0 0 24 24">
<g>
<path d="M18.984 3h4.031v12h-4.031v-12zM15 3c1.078 0 2.016 0.938 2.016 2.016v9.984c0 0.563-0.234 1.031-0.609			1.406l-6.563 6.609-1.078-1.078c-0.281-0.281-0.422-0.609-0.422-1.031v-0.328l0.984-4.594h-6.328c-1.078 0-2.016-0.891-2.016-1.969l0.047-0.094h-0.047v-1.922c0-0.281			0.047-0.516 0.141-0.75l3.047-7.031c0.281-0.703 0.984-1.219 1.828-1.219h9z" />
</g>
</symbol>
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